Yet, as we move further and deeper into a digitized world we are bombarded with ever more instruments of measurement (big data, algorithms, UGC, VGI etc.), ever more far reaching versions of the printing press (Web 2.0, Social Media etc.), and the waters are muddied further by the development of Participatory-GIS systems, and the (re-)birth of Neogeography which purportedly offers up a challenge to the status quo (Goodchild, 2009; Haklay, 2013). Traditional paradigms for conceptualising the media are further challenged by shifts in the media environment resulting from the growth of digital and mobile media.
Often, the starting point of electronic trading is said to be the year 1971, when the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (Nasdaq) became the first electronic stock market displaying quotes for 2500 over-the-counter securities.Legal Software licences tell people how the rights holder (usually the author) wants the software to be used and what freedoms or restrictions it has.Without a licence, many uses of the software may be prohibited.The media, data analysts and neogeographers all sit in-between the virtual and the real creating new forms of virtual time and space that are then superimposed onto territorial spaces (Potts: 2015). 213-252 in The Map Reader: Theories of Mapping Practice and Cartographic Representation (eds. The Academic Study of Media has Always been the Study of New Media Paddy Scannell Where is the Global in Media Theory (and When)? Media Studies as Contemporary History – A Provocation Annabelle Sreberny Making Media Studies Transformational: Creativity Over (Just) Criticism David Gauntlett GLOBAL CRISIS AND MEDIA THEORYThe Return of the Popular Paolo Gerbaudo Social Movements and the Global Crisis: Organising Communication for Change Anastasia Kavada Crisis Politics and Austerity in the UK: Creative Instabilities?These new virtual spaces are still so too controlled and mediated from above by new omniscient digital Gods, propelled by their search for profits. Jeremy Gilbert Hegemonic Shadows: USA, China and Dewesternising Media Studies Colin Sparks RETHINKING INTERNATIONALISING MEDIA STUDIES AND CULTURAL STUDIESInternationalizing Media Studies: A Reconsideration Daya Thussu Internationalizing Media and Cultural Studies: Travelling Knowledge and Translocalities Fernando Resende Transnationality or Globality?